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The Ministry of Education is also tackling a number of issues: The public education system in Egypt consists of three levels: Education is made compulsory for 9 academic years between the ages of 4 and Moreover, all levels of education are free within any government run schools.
According to the World Bank , there are great differences in educational attainment of the rich and the poor, also known as the " wealth gap.
In the case of Egypt, the wealth gap was a modest 3 years in the mids. The Road Not Traveled showed promising results of the people of singers relative educational achievements.
Of the 14 MENA countries analyzed, Egypt achieved the education which has been really bad over the years. There has been a lot of attacks in their schools.
Its key elements are: Promotional examinations are held at all levels except in grades 6 and 9 at the basic education level and the grade 12 in the secondary stage, which apply standardized regional or national exams.
The Ministry of Education is responsible for making decisions about the education system with the support of three Centers: Each center has its own focus in formulating education policies with other state level committees.
The teachers are required to complete four years of pre-service courses at university to enter the teaching profession. Local teachers also take part in the international professional training programs.
Starting in , the Ministries of Education, Finance, and Local Development and others started informal discussions to experiment with the decentralization of education.
Working groups were established to make more formal proposals. Proposals included ideas for starting with recurrent expenditures, using a simple and transparent formula for carrying out fiscal transfers, and making sure that transfers would reach the school itself.
During design was carried out, three pilot governorates Faiyum , Ismailia , and Luxor were chosen, and monitoring and capacity building processes and manuals were agreed upon.
The formula is quite simple, and includes enrolment, poverty , and stage of education as drivers. During funding was decentralized all the way to the school level, and schools began to receive funding.
As of late , the pilot showed few if any problems, and the expected results were materializing quite well, in terms of stimulating community participation, allowing schools to spend more efficiently and assess their own priorities, and increasing the seriousness of school-based planning by creating a means to finance such plans, among other expected results.
An informal assessment of the pilot revealed that the funding formula money precipitated an increase in community donations.
The survey results show that the ratio of the median values of community donations of the pilot year to the previous year was 2. Parallel to these efforts in the education sector, other sectors for example, certain aspects of housing and municipal services in Egypt are planning to decentralize decision-making and spending, now nationwide without a pilot stage in limited governorates , in a phased approach.
Education plans to be one of the lead sectors in this process. In addition to administrative and financial decentralization, there is an increasing emphasis on involving elected local popular councils which exist at governorate and district level in the horizontal oversight of expenditure and planning across the decentralizing sectors, and as they come on stream in the decentralization process.
Within the education sector, as of late plans are being made to decentralize certain lines of funding and planning for capital equipment and infrastructure , in all governorates, all the way to school level in the case of smaller units of capital equipment, or levels higher than the school for items such as new infrastructure.
The education sector does expect to continue to use the original 3 pilot governorates as a special observatory to assess and understand how well the process is proceeding.
Modern education was introduced under the auspices of Ottoman Pasha Muhammad Ali during the early s. He started a dual system of education at the time: The overall literacy rate in Egypt is 72 percent as of , being Generally speaking, there are two types of government schools: Arabic Schools and Experimental Language the governmental national curriculum in the Arabic Language.
A governmental English language curriculum is taught starting at first Primary year and either French, German, Spanish or Italian is added as a second foreign language in Secondary Education.
The good thing for Egyptians it is for free but there is about 75 students per class for some of them. Generally speaking, there are four types of private schools:.
Many of the private schools were built by missionaries, are currently affiliated with churches and provide quality education.
These are the types of private schools in Egypt. In Egypt, the Ministry of Education coordinates the preschool education.
In the total enrollment rate of pre-primary students was 16 percent and that increased to 24 percent in Irrespective of private or state run, all preschool institutions come under Ministry of Education.
Ministry of Education is also getting support from the international agencies, such as the World Bank to enhance the early childhood education system by increasing access to schools, improving quality of education and building capacity of teachers  At the primary level ISCED Level 1 students could attend private, religious or government schools.
Currently, there are 7. As of , a mere 7 percent of primary school teachers in Egypt had received a university degree; the remaining 93 percent only had nine years of formal education.
Completion of this tier grants students the Basic Education Completion Certificate. The importance of completion of this level of education is to safeguard students against illiteracy as early drop outs at this stage easily recede into illiteracy and eventually poverty.
Secondary education consists of three tracks: The general secondary stage includes 3 years of education, whereas the secondary vocational track could be for 3—5 years.
To enter the secondary level, the students must pass a national exam which is given at end of the secondary stage. As of year the So far efforts are underway with the support of multilateral organizations to make the general and vocational secondary system less rigid and provide equal opportunities to students of various wealth quintiles in the two tracks to opt for higher education.
This is also being implemented by the World Bank led secondary enhancement project in Egypt. Technical education, which is provided in three-year and five-year programs, includes schools in three different fields: The UN and other multilateral organizations are working towards improving the technical and vocational training system in Egypt.
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Skip to main content. Cash One way to encourage your employees to increase their safety awareness and track record is to reward them with a cash incentive.
Committees Establishing a committee of workers in charge of safety oversight is another type of initiative that you can use to ensure worker involvement in safety and education.
Education Education is key to safety in the workplace. References 4 Pioneer Institute: About the Author Jared Lewis is a professor of history, philosophy and the humanities.
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Gross enrollment in tertiary education increased from 27 percent in to 31 percent in Both at national level inspection systems, examinations and at local level school level student assessments measures of the success of education strategies and the performance of the system are weak.
The inspectorate system does not provide either solid technical support to school staff, nor an effective monitoring mechanism for failing schools.
The examination system at the end of preparatory and secondary levels—Thanaweyya Amma, does not measure higher-order thinking skills, but concentrates rather on rote memorization.
Scores can thus be raised significantly by exam specific tutoring, therefore, students with more resources can afford private tutoring which helps them to score higher on the national standardized exams and hence are accepted in top universities in Egypt.
The Egyptian tertiary education is steered by a centralized system with institutions having little control on the decisions of the curriculum, program development and deployment of staff and faculty.
Improving system governance and efficiency is an imperative that takes on added urgency given that a significant population bulge has reached the higher education system.
The consequence was a sharp decline in per student spending of around 40 percent in real terms over that period.
The higher education cohort is projected to continue to increase by close to 6 percent 60, students per annum through This means that significant efficiencies will need to be introduced into the system just to maintain quality at its current inadequate level.
The performance and quality of higher education is currently severely compromised by overly centralized order to improve the already outdated system, rigid curriculum and teaching practices.
Recent Government actions to build political consensus on issues critical to reform have created a climate that is ripe for change. The Minister, appointed in , quickly established a committee for the reform of higher education known as the HEEP Committee which drew in a wide range of stakeholders including industrialists and parliamentarians.
A National Conference on higher education reform was held in February , and a Declaration for action emanating from the Conference was endorsed by the President and the Prime Minister.
The Declaration identified 25 specific reform initiatives. The Bank agrees with, and supports, the Declaration. Priority has been given to 12 projects in the first phase of implementation — and were integrated into the following six projects: The adjustment added two more dimensions: Due to the dynamic nature of the reform strategy, which entails reconsidering priorities for each period, a Strategic Planning Unit SPU was established for the MOHE to ensure the sustainability of planning and project monitoring during the three phases and for future ones.
Public higher education is free in Egypt, and Egyptian students only pay registration fees. Private education is much more expensive.
There were a few attempts to make a positive impact and educational reform from the civil community in Egypt but those efforts remained very limited on their impact on the educational process.
Education crisis in Egypt is very complicated, public education is not capable of providing quality education and is hardly providing any education with the shortage in facilities, lack of trained educators and inflation in classes.
The Community addressed itself to contributing to solving the educational problems in Egypt including the shortage in research, statistics and entrepreneurship in the field of education.
Among their initiatives"the Science Across Egypt   initiative and "Egypt: Another Nation at Risk Report  " specially to address the post revolution needs of educational reform by the power of people.
Direct link to read the report online and download . Ahmed Abdel Azeem on providing workshops on several related topics such as science in relation to life, biodiversity and Fungal Conservation in relation to education  in part of the Science Across Egypt Project.
Agricultural education is divided into a three-year and a five-year system. Both 3 year and 5 year options provide theoretical information taught in the classroom and practical aspects taught in laboratories, workshops and farms.
These schools coordinate with the Ministry of Agriculture to provide training opportunities for teaching staff about technical farming issues at agricultural research centres.
Farming plots are provided to schools and to offer job opportunities to graduates at institutions affiliated to the Ministry of Agriculture.
Although significant progress has been made to increase human capital base through improved education system, still the quality of education experience is low and unequally distributed.
Due to lack of good quality education at the basic and secondary levels, there has been a mushrooming market for private tutoring.
Now to take private tuition has become more of an obligation than a remedial activity. According to the Egypt Human Development Report , 58 percent of surveyed families stated that their children take private tutoring.
The CAPMAS survey showed that households spend on average around 61 percent of total education expenditure on private tutoring.
In addition, per household expenditure of the richest quintile on private tutoring is more than seven times that of the poorest.
Egypt also has a shortage of skilled and semi-skilled workforce. But there has been an abundance of low-skilled laborers. Even if there are any high-skilled workers available, their quality of training is quite poor.
This is mostly a problem in small-medium companies and large public industries that work in "protected" domestic markets.
The average gross production per worker is lower than other North African countries: Youth unemployment is also very high, primarily due to lack of education system in providing necessary training under TVET programs.
Most importantly, Egyptian education faces a main challenge because of the quality of teachers that teach in public schools.
An ethnography study conducted by Sarah Hartmann in concluded that most teachers in Egypt resort to teaching for lack of better options and because the nature of the job does not conflict with their more important gender role as mothers.
The low salaries offered by the public schooling system in Egypt attracts low-skilled employees. Corporal punishment is a common practice in Egyptian schools even though it has not been deeply discussed in literature.
There are significantly higher enrollment rates in wealthier regions at both the primary and secondary levels. This confirms that more efforts are needed to reduce the wealth gap in educational attainment.
Academic weekly holidays are on Fridays and sometimes, in addition to, either Saturdays or Sundays. In addition to some of the state official holidays, religious or secular, there are two main vacations.
The school summer vacation starts at the beginning or middle of June and ends around the middle of September. Winter vacation starts from the middle of January and goes to the beginning of February.
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If your company is known as "that company" that holds the safety awareness picnic every spring for the entire community, you and your employees will automatically be associated with safety and safety awareness.
This association creates a higher level of responsibility within the workplace and to the rest of the community as a whole.
Education is key to safety in the workplace. Provide workers with refresher courses that they can use in their everyday work. For example, forklift workers can take an annual course in forklift skills.
If you work in a field where chemicals are used regularly, have workers complete a course in handling hazardous substances. Jared Lewis is a professor of history, philosophy and the humanities.
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