Finnland (finnisch · Audio-Datei / Hörbeispiel Suomi [ˈsuɔmi], schwedisch Finland [ˈfɪnland]), amtlich Republik Finnland (finnisch Suomen tasavalta. Das Finnland Suomi Magazin enthält viel Wissenswertes über Finnland und streift alle Bereiche des gesellschaftlichen Lebens in Suomi. Suomi, so bezeichnen die Finnen ihr Land und ihre Sprache (sie kommen aus Suomi und sprechen Suomi). Woher genau dieser Name kommt, wissen sie.
Varusmiespalvelun suorittavien osuus Suomessa on maailman korkeimpia. Suomi on osallistunut Naton kriisinhallintaoperaatioon Afganistanissa vuodesta alkaen.
Suomessa on luonnonvaroina puuta ja mineraaleja. Suomen palvelusektori muodostaa suurimman osan taloudesta. Viennin osuus on yli kolmasosa koko kansantuotteesta.
Suomen taloutta kuvaavat avoimuus globalisaatiolle ja julkisen sektorin vahva asema. Suomen markkinat kuuluvat Euroopan vapaimpiin.
Inflaatio on pysynyt alhaisena. Veroprosentti on progressiivinen , eli se kasvaa tulojen kasvaessa. Vuonna Suomen liikevaihdoltaan suurin yritys oli Neste Oil.
Energiankulutus asukasta kohti on Suomessa Euroopan unionin suurinta. Suomessa on 15 yliopistoa. Virtanen palkittiin vuonna Nobelin kemianpalkinnolla.
Suomessa on 27 lentoasemaa , joista suurin on Vantaalla sijaitseva Helsinki-Vantaan lentoasema. Laivaliikenteen suosiota nostaa Ahvenanmaan kautta kulkevilla laivoilla mahdollinen veroton myynti.
Suomesta muutetaan eniten muihin EU-maihin. Suomen perustuslain mukaan maan kansalliskielet ovat suomi ja ruotsi.
Suomen romanit , tataari ks. Suomen tataarit ja suomalainen viittomakieli. Vuoden lopussa 70,9 prosenttia kansasta kuului evankelis-luterilaiseen kirkkoon.
Kolmasosa valitsee rahan tarvikepakkauksen sijaan. Lapset saavat ilmaisen terveyden- ja hammashuollon vuotiaaksi. Suomen suurimmat kunnat Kunnat hallitsevat alueensa peruskouluja, lukioita ja osaa ammatillisista oppilaitoksista.
Parhaan romaanin Finlandia-palkinto jaetaan vuosittain. Vanhin suomenkielinen ammattiteatteri, Suomen Kansallisteatteri , perustettiin Suomen taide koki kultakautensa luvun lopulla ja luvun alussa.
Ennen lukua suurin osa Suomen taloista oli rakennettu puusta. Vuonna yritys kohosi tuotantoluvuissaan samalle tasolle siihen asti Suomen elokuva-alaa yksin hallinneen Suomi-Filmin kanssa.
Erik Blombergin Valkoinen peura palkittiin Cannesin elokuvajuhlilla. Esa Pakarisen ja Reino Helismaan johdolla esiteltiin niin kutsuttu rillumarei -elokuva luvun alkupuolella.
Kriitikot inhosivat, kansa rakasti. Se oli Oscar -ehdokkaana ja voitti Cannesin elokuvajuhlien Grand Prix -palkinnon. Suomen suurin kaupallinen televisiokanava on vuonna perustettu MTV3 , jonka omistaa ruotsalainen Bonnier.
Suomen kuunnelluin radiokanava on Yle Radio Suomi . Suosituin kaupallinen radiokanava on Radio Nova  .
Claes Thunberg hallitsi luvulla pikaluistelua. Veikko Hakulisesta tuli luvulla yksi kaikkien aikojen hiihtourheilijoista.
Luettelo valtioista Eurooppa Euroopan neuvosto Euroopan unioni. Ristiretket Suomeen , Ruotsalaisten tulo Suomeen. Ruotsin vallan aika Suomessa , Kristinuskon historia Suomessa.
Suomen politiikka ja Suomen hallinto. Suomen valtion alue- ja paikallishallinto. Suomen lentoasemat ja -paikat. Nykysuomen etymologinen sanakirja , s.
Suomen saari ja muinaisrunon saari, Kalevalaseuran vuosikirja 44 , Keskiajan suomen kielen dokumentoitu sanasto ensiesiintymisvuosineen , s.
Suomen geologinen seura, Esihistoriasta Kustaa Vaasaan , s. Porvoo - Helsinki - Juva: Beljakov aloitti uudet vaaran vuodet.
Embracing globalization and sharing risks. The Eastern dialects consist of the widespread Savonian dialects savolaismurteet spoken in Savo and nearby areas, and the South-Eastern dialects now spoken only in Finnish South Karelia.
The South-Eastern dialects kaakkoismurteet were previously also spoken on the Karelian Isthmus and in Ingria. Most Ingrian Finns were deported to various interior areas of the Soviet Union.
Palatalization , a common feature of Uralic languages, had been lost in the Finnic branch, but it has been reacquired by most of these languages, including Eastern Finnish, but not Western Finnish.
The language spoken in those parts of Karelia that have not historically been under Swedish or Finnish rule is usually called the Karelian language , and it is considered to be more distant from standard Finnish than the Eastern dialects.
Whether this language of Russian Karelia is a dialect of Finnish or a separate language is a matter of interpretation.
However, the term "Karelian dialects" is often used colloquially for the Finnish South-Eastern dialects. There are two main varieties of Finnish used throughout the country.
One is the "standard language" yleiskieli , and the other is the "spoken language" puhekieli. The standard language is used in formal situations like political speeches and newscasts.
Its written form, the "book language" kirjakieli , is used in nearly all written texts, not always excluding even the dialogue of common people in popular prose.
The spoken language, on the other hand, is the main variety of Finnish used in popular TV and radio shows and at workplaces, and may be preferred to a dialect in personal communication.
Standard Finnish is prescribed by the Language Office of the Research Institute for the Languages of Finland and is the language used in official communication.
The Dictionary of Contemporary Finnish Nykysuomen sanakirja —61 , with , entries, was a prescriptive dictionary that defined official language.
An additional volume for words of foreign origin Nykysuomen sivistyssanakirja , 30, entries was published in An updated dictionary, The New Dictionary of Modern Finnish Kielitoimiston sanakirja was published in an electronic form in and in print in A descriptive grammar Iso suomen kielioppi ,  1, pages was published in Standard Finnish is used in official texts and is the form of language taught in schools.
Its spoken form is used in political speech, newscasts, in courts, and in other formal situations. Nearly all publishing and printed works are in standard Finnish.
The colloquial language has mostly developed naturally from earlier forms of Finnish, and spread from the main cultural and political centres.
The standard language, however, has always been a consciously constructed medium for literature. It preserves grammatical patterns that have mostly vanished from the colloquial varieties and, as its main application is writing, it features complex syntactic patterns that are not easy to handle when used in speech.
The colloquial language develops significantly faster, and the grammatical and phonological simplifications also include the most common pronouns and suffixes, which amount to frequent but modest differences.
Some sound changes have been left out of the formal language, such as the irregularization of some common verbs by assimilation, e. However, the longer forms such as tule can be used in spoken language in other forms as well.
The literary language certainly still exerts a considerable influence upon the spoken word, because illiteracy is nonexistent and many Finns are avid readers.
More common is the intrusion of typically literary constructions into a colloquial discourse, as a kind of quote from written Finnish. It should also be noted that it is quite common to hear book-like and polished speech on radio or TV, and the constant exposure to such language tends to lead to the adoption of such constructions even in everyday language.
The spelling and the pronunciation this encourages however approximate the original pronunciation, still reflected in e.
The orthography of informal language follows that of the formal. However, in signalling the former in writing, syncope and sandhi — especially internal — may occasionally amongst other characteristics be transcribed, e.
This never occurs in the standard variety. Note that there are noticeable differences between dialects. Also note that here the formal language does not mean a language spoken in formal occasions but the standard language which exists practically only in written form.
The phoneme inventory of Finnish is moderately large  , with a great number of vocalic segments and a restricted set of consonant types, both of which can be long or short.
Finnish monophthongs show eight vowels qualities that contrast in duration, thus 16 vowel phonemes in total.
Vowel phonemes are always contrastive in word-initial syllables; for noninitial syllable, see morphophonology below.
Mid vowels tend to be open-mid. Long and short vowels are shown below. The usual analysis is that Finnish has long and short vowels and consonants as distinct phonemes.
However, long vowels may be analyzed as a vowel followed by a chroneme , or also, that sequences of identical vowels are pronounced as "diphthongs".
The quality of long vowels mostly overlaps with the quality of short vowels, with the exception of u , which is centralized with respect to uu ; long vowels do not morph into diphthongs.
There are eighteen phonemic diphthongs; like vowels, diphthongs do not have significant allophony. Finnish has a consonant inventory of small to moderate size, where voicing is mostly not distinctive, and fricatives are scarce.
Finnish has relatively few non- coronal consonants. Consonants are as follows, where consonants in parenthesis are found only in a few recent loans, and may be mispronounced by uneducated speakers.
Almost all consonants have phonemic short and long geminated forms, although length is only constrastive in consonants word-medially.
Consonant clusters are mostly absent in native Finnish words, except for a small set of two-consonant sequences in syllable codas , e.
However, because of a number of recently adopted loanwords that have them, e. Finnish is somewhat divergent from other Uralic languages in two respects: Palatalization is characteristic of Uralic languages, but Finnish has lost it.
However, the Eastern dialects and the Karelian language have redeveloped a system of palatalization. Characteristic features of Finnish common to some other Uralic languages are vowel harmony and an agglutinative morphology; owing to the extensive use of the latter, words can be quite long.
The main stress is always on the first syllable, and it is articulated by adding approximately ms more length to the stressed vowel. However, stress is not strong and words appear evenly stressed.
In some cases, stress is so weak that the highest points of volume, pitch and other indicators of "articulation intensity" are not on the first syllable, although native speakers recognize the first syllable as a stressed syllable.
Finnish has several morphophonological processes that require modification of the forms of words for daily speech. The most important processes are vowel harmony and consonant gradation.
Finnish front vowels are not umlauts. Consonant gradation is a partly nonproductive  lenition process for P, T and K in inherited vocabulary, with the oblique stem "weakened" from the nominative stem, or vice versa.
For example, tar kk a "precise" has the oblique stem tar k a- , as in tarkan "of the precise". There is also another gradation pattern, which is older, and causes simple elision of T and K in suffixes.
However, it is very common since it is found in the partitive case marker: Finnish is a synthetic language that employs extensive regular agglutination of modifiers to verbs, nouns, adjectives and numerals.
However, Finnish is not a polysynthetic language , although non-finite dependent clauses may be contracted to infinitives lauseenvastike , e.
The morphosyntactic alignment is nominative—accusative; but there are two object cases: Often this is confused with perfectivity , but the only element of perfectivity that exists in Finnish is that there are some perfective verbs.
Transitivity is distinguished by different verbs for transitive and intransitive, e. There are several frequentative and momentane verb categories.
Verbs gain personal suffixes for each person; these suffixes are grammatically more important than pronouns, which are often not used at all in standard Finnish.
The infinitive is not the uninflected form but has a suffix -ta or -da ; the closest one to an uninflected form is the third person singular indicative.
The passive voice sometimes called impersonal or indefinite resembles a "fourth person" similar to, e.
There are four tenses, namely present, past, perfect and pluperfect; the system mirrors the Germanic system. The future tense is not needed, because of context and the telic contrast.
For example, luen kirjan "I read a book completely " indicates a future, when luen kirjaa "I read a book not yet complete " indicates present.
Nouns may be suffixed with the markers for the aforementioned accusative case and partitive case , the genitive case , eight different locatives , and a few other cases.
The case marker must be added not only to the main noun, but also to its modifiers; e. Possession is marked with a possessive suffix ; separate possessive pronouns are unknown.
Pronouns gain suffixes just as nouns do. Finnish has a smaller core vocabulary than, for example, English, and uses derivative suffixes to a greater extent.
As an example, take the word kirja "a book", from which one can form derivatives kirjain "a letter" of the alphabet , kirje "a piece of correspondence, a letter", kirjasto "a library", kirjailija "an author", kirjallisuus "literature", kirjoittaa "to write", kirjoittaja "a writer", kirjuri "a scribe, a clerk", kirjallinen "in written form", kirjata "to write down, register, record", kirjasin "a font", and many others.
Here are some of the more common such suffixes. Which of each pair is used depends on the word being suffixed in accordance with the rules of vowel harmony.
Verbal derivational suffixes are extremely diverse; several frequentatives and momentanes differentiating causative , volitional-unpredictable and anticausative are found, often combined with each other, often denoting indirection.
The diversity and compactness of both derivation and inflectional agglutination can be illustrated with istahtaisinkohan "I wonder if I should sit down for a while" from istua , "to sit, to be seated":.
Over the course of many centuries, the Finnish language has borrowed many words from a wide variety of languages, most from neighbouring Indo-European languages.
Indeed, some estimates put the core Proto-Uralic vocabulary surviving in Finnish at only around word roots. In general, the first loan words into Uralic languages seem to come from very early Indo-European languages.
Later important sources have been, depending on the language, Indo-Iranian , Turkic , Baltic , Germanic , and Slavic languages. Finnic languages, including Finnish, have borrowed in particular from Baltic and Germanic languages, and to a lesser extent from Slavic and Indo-Iranian languages.
Furthermore, a certain group of very basic and neutral words exists in Finnish and other Finnic languages that are absent from other Uralic languages, but without a recognizable etymology from any known language.
These words are usually regarded [ who? The original Finnish emo occurs only in restricted contexts. There are other close-kinship words that are loaned from Baltic and Germanic languages morsian "bride", armas "dear", huora "whore".
More recently, Swedish has been a prolific source of borrowings, and also, the Swedish language acted as a proxy for European words, especially those relating to government.
Present-day Finland was a part of Sweden from the 12th century and was ceded to Russia in , becoming an autonomous Grand Duchy. Swedish was retained as the official language and language of the upper class even after this.
When Finnish was accepted as an official language, it gained legal equal status with Swedish. During the period of autonomy, Russian did not gain much ground as a language of the people or the government.
Nevertheless, quite a few words were subsequently acquired from Russian especially in older Helsinki slang but not to the same extent as with Swedish.
In all these cases, borrowing has been partly a result of geographical proximity. Typical Russian loanwords are old or very old, thus hard to recognize as such, and concern everyday concepts, e.
Notably, a few religious words such as Raamattu "Bible" are borrowed from Russian, which indicates language contact preceding the Swedish era.
This is mainly believed to be result of trade with Novgorod from the 9th century on and Russian Orthodox missions in the east in the 13th century.
Most recently, and with increasing impact, English has been the source of new loanwords in Finnish. Calques from English are also found, e.
Grammatical calques are also found, for example, the replacement of the impersonal passiivi with the English-style generic you , e.
This construct, however, is limited to colloquial language, as it is against the standard grammar. However, this does not mean that Finnish is threatened by English.
Borrowing is normal language evolution, and neologisms are coined actively not only by the government, but also by the media.
Moreover, Finnish and English have a considerably different grammar , phonology and phonotactics , discouraging direct borrowing. English loan words in Finnish slang include for example pleikkari "PlayStation", hodari "hot dog", and hedari "headache", "headshot" or "headbutt".
Often these loanwords are distinctly identified as slang or jargon , rarely being used in a negative mood or in formal language. Neologisms are actively generated by the Language Planning Office and the media.
They are widely adopted. One would actually give an old-fashioned or rustic impression using forms such as kompuutteri computer or kalkulaattori calculator when the neologism is widely adopted.
Finnish is written with the Swedish variant of the Latin alphabet but with two more letters that are from some Russian loanwords.