At 32 ancient sites. Bowl 37, raised letters outside among ornaments. Bowl 37, written in the mould with the stylus and in reversed raised letters outside below ornaments.
Bowl 37, sunk letters reversed on a raised label outside among ornaments. For description of the animal figure see Mr. Two examples of dififering shape and clay, each stamped in duplicate.
Found at Quemmore, three miles to east of Lancaster. THE following list includes one hundred and twenty-- seven fragments of the red glazed moulded pottery universally spoken of on the Continent as terra sigillata figured pottery and in this country as Samian, found in or near the ancient town of Lancaster, and collected at considerable trouble and expense by a few private indi- viduals of more than usual public spirit and enlightened taste, their names being Miss A.
Roper, Hamer, and Councillor Heald. Walters, of the British Museum, published in I How far the divisions and order of arrangement upon the subjoined list have been made to conform to these fixed points will be briefly indicated.
The similarity of the name of the potter volvs envs on a chalice-shaped vase dis- covered in the heart of Roanne to that of a well-known potter of the Republican period, c.
Here the Roman road between Rodez Segodunum and Lodeve Luteva enters the Condatomagus plain of confluence of the Tabula Peutingeriana, a region known as the Graufesenque and now a desert, where no apparent trace of ancient structures marks the spot.
The moulds and vases obtained there belong to the same period as those of the Graufesenque. Seven kilo- metres to the west is the Allier, which allowed pottery transmitted by boat to easily gain the course of the Loire.
The similar vases of Lezoux are most plentiful in ancient camps and cities of the three Gaulish and two German provinces and the occupied portion of Britain as far as the estuaries of the Forth and Clyde, and when these main facts are considered along with the quantity of terra sigillata specimens in the British and other museums, the list of four hundred and fifty names of Gaulish potters on plain vases collected in London alone, the number of vases recovered by dredging from the Pan Rock, Whitstable, and the statistics of the extra- ordinary abundance of the products of the Graufesenque — 1 POTTERY FOUND AT LANCASTER.
Alfred Edward Plicque a naturalised American in , comprising a collection of vases, punches, and restored moulds, from which a number of mouldings have been taken by M.
Constancias during the nineteenth century. It therefore seems strange that the enormous collections of Dr. Plicque, requiring one hundred and thirty-five cases for their removal, were only acquired by the French national museum of St.
The numbers employed in the list for indicating the shape are those proposed by Dragendorff and generally adopted by archaeologists for the varieties known to him at the time of writing, from i to Others up to 75 have been added by Dechelette.
It is represented by nine nearly complete vases and a number of fragments at Silchester, and by probably as many in London, Colchester, York, Cirencester, and other large centres for which no statistics are available, but where the names of the potters by whom they were made are recorded.
Frag- ments of fourteen similar vases have been found at Wilderspool, five at Melandra, three at Camelon in Scotland, and one, found at Castlefield, Manchester, is in the Warrington Museum.
Of the sigillata vases taken from beneath the ashes of Vesuvius at Pompeii destroyed A. Form 30 is the cylindrical or upright-sided bowl which is common to both centres and to every period of the manufacture.
It is represented in the list by four speci- mens, one of which is the large and beautiful vase of BVTRio plate I, No. Form 37 is the hemispherical bowl to which ninety- five per cent of the specimens in the list conform.
It represents nineteen-twentieths of the total production of ornamented vases of Lezoux, and it is in like proportion in most of the British and continental collections.
Four of the vases found at Pompeii belong to it, showing that the potters of the Graufesenque had abandoned form 29 for form 37, which had begun to appear about a.
Lancashire fc Cheshire Arliquarlan Society. The ornamentation on the vases of form 37 has been resolved for dating purposes into seven categories, based upon the general arrangement and framing of the figures, which forms the best criterion, viz.
They are all placed indifferently in either zone or register. Twenty-four fragments are recorded at the top of the list as belonging to vases of form 37 so decorated.
The fragments so ornamented are the most numerous, forty-four being recorded. Six examples are registered separately as bearing the cruciform ornament, a sort of St.
It is represented on one of the vases above mentioned from the ruins of Pompeii. The medallions on form 29 are of small size and subordinate character.
They are found on fourteen of the recorded fragments. It is also somewhat rare in the workshops. Twelve specimens on the list belong to it.
An earlier and more perfect style of free figures is distinguished, class a, to which the bvtrio vase No. This style resembles the Ionic frieze with a continuous row of figures in relief.
Vases of form 29, with purely pattern decoration or combined with subordinate figures; forms 30 and 37 with similar ornamentation beginning to be used.
Vases 37 with decorations of transition and metopes. Vases of similar shape and ornamentation to those of the Graufesenque, but distinguished by the greater regularity and delicacy of the reliefs.
Vases 37 of transition and metope panels , free figures numerous subjects, close together, and of careful execution, class a.
In cases where the place of manufacture is uncertain a dash — has been inserted after the progressive number in the list.
Panel framing head of roaring lion to left, Gerraanus. Transitional in two zones, floral scroll framing volutes: Bowls of Form 37 except Bowl 19 transitional in Two Zones.
Floral scroll framing octagonal leaves with long stalks ; small animals; lion leaping to left. Metopes, cruciform ornament, lion leaping to left, Florus ; fantail foliage, Marcus ; festoon and tassel patterns framing volutes.
Festoon and tassel patterns framing volutes ; small animals, dog running to right, variant. Festoon and tassel patterns framing volutes and birds eagle?
Frieze of semi- circles a degeneracy of the festoon and tassel pattern framing birds ; hen or large bird to left looking back.
Metopes with Transitional Elements. The ovolo border is absent. Festoons of leaves in outline framing animals, panther, Fantastic foliage and animals alternating; a band of 8-shaped ornaments below.
Fantastic plant and animals alternating, lion, Florus ; stag, S65? Fantastic foliage with long winding stalks alternating with figures, Apollo, 55 Acas[tus].
Fantastic foliage and animals, lion. Festoons framing animals and fantastic foliage in fantail shape. Fantastic shrubs and animals, quadruped galloping to left, variant , Banuus.
Ivy leaves and figures. Pan walking to left. Doeccus , 18 Lezoux: Tree with dense foliage beech? Form 30, three registers; animals, imbricated arrow points, hare or rabbit to left.
Semi-circles festoon and tassel enclosing beardless masks to right ; small medallions framing beardless masks and diamond patterns separated by "invected " columns.
Engrailed parallel bars enclosing triangular spaces filled with oval knobs alternating with figures pigmy and pigeon taking flight ; a wreath of leaves below.
Figures in panels, Silenus, , charging bull, ; fEUitail foliage in lower compartments; a wreath of leaves below. Diana dressed in a tunica talaris walking to right, holding a bow with one hand and the fore feet of a fawn rearing in front with the other, 63 Mercator ; Pan walking to right holding a thyrsus, Figures in panels, two registers, two gladiators, a Samnite and Thracian fighting.
Metopes with Cruciform Ornament. This is a motive proper to the first century only. Cruciform pattern ; spirally wound columns and zigzag fillets enclosing leaves in outline with long sinuous stalks in the triangular compartments.
Panels with beaded outlines framing cruciform patterns, tripods, man nude, Panels with plain outlines framing cruciform pattern and armed warrior fighting, variant.
Panels with beaded divisions framing cruciform patterns and female dancer with full wide-spread drapery new type ; a wreath forming lower border.
Panels with plain divisions framing cruciform pattern and Diana with fawn, 63a Floras. Bowls of Form 37 except The ornamented zone is divided into trapezoidal compartments by vertical beaded or zigzag lines ending in rosettes.
The compartments are often sub-divided by a horizontal line into two super-imposed registers — a survival of the older form with two separate zones of ornament.
Two large fragments of the same bowl ; warrior nude fighting with sword raised to strike and large round shield thrown back, ; similar figure turned to left, with large oval shield and apiece of drapery flying behind, ; Silenus semi-nude walking to right, a bunch of grapes in his right hand and on his head a basket of fruit, singly and in pairs ; hare or rabbit running to left new type.
Jupiter nude standing with thunderbolt in right hand and holding sceptre with left, i ; warrior nude fighting, his left arm wound with the manica, ; Perseus holding the head of Medusa and brandishing some sort of weapon, Apollo nude seated, his right hand raised to the top of his head and left hand holding the lyre, which rests on his left knee, 52 Cinnamus, Paternus.
Apollo nude standing turned to left, holding a laurel branch in his right hand, Apollo nude seated on a rock, his right hand raised above his head and his left holding a branch of laurel, 57 Adrocisus, Butrio, Carantinus, luUinus, Libertus, Paternus.
Little warrior fighting, ; ditto, ; man nude running to left with head turned back, ; gladiator Thracian flying and looking back, ; little gladiator in repose seen from behind, Divixtus, Sissus.
Mars or warrior nude seated on a cippus holding spear and shield, 93 ; man nude standing full face with arms hanging straight down new type ; floral scroll in form of double volute enclosing leaves and birds.
Horseman galloping to right with mantle flying behind and blowing a long straight trumpet new type ; wild boar running to left, Borillus, Cinnamus, Felix, Marcus ; basket of fruit supported by three dolphins on circular base, ; and hexagonal pedestal surmounted by two dolphins, a Cinnamus, Servus, Doeccus.
Horseman nude fighting with right hand thrown back to deliver a blow and left hand extended forward with round shield, Venus nude standing twisting her long locks of hair with both hands, ; little Cupid running to right new type.
Nymph semi-nude holding a bivalve shell open with both hands, ; a young Satyr in repose, trunk of tree on which he rests only remaining ; beardless masks in vertical rows looking down- wards.
Cupid running to right, ; man nude full face with arms upraised in form of caryatid new type ; infant Hercules strangling serpents one arm only , ; full face beardless mask, Cinnamus, Servus ; dove taking flight, loii variant.
Balbinus, Cinnamus ; caryatid variant. Man nude standing full face on a base, below which is a full-face mask, Q. Balbinus, Lastuca, Paternus ; quadruped, incomplete.
Man nude standing with his right hand extended, and holding a. Satyr or man nude dancing, Cinnamus ; Hercules nude seated, holding a club in his right hand and a cantharus in his left, which rests on his left knee, Cinnamus.
Slave seated, holding a lamp, Libertus, Sileus ; dog running to left. Caryatid in the form of a figure of Hermes issuing from a calyx formed of acanthus leaves, seven potters ; pigeon turned to left looking back, Libertus ; dolphin to left, eleven potters.
Caryatid of similar type to preceding, Cinnamus, Divixtus, lullinus, Libertus, Putriu ; a full-face mask beneath. Lion leaping to right, variant Borillus, Priscianus.
Dolphin to left, variant Decumanus, Paternus, Servus. Cantharus variant , ? S-shaped scroll of vine branch with leaves and bunch of grapes; a row of double circles, the outer one beaded, ?
Dolphin to left of a common type eleven potters. See preceding fragment, No. Little nude warrior fighting, of similar type to ; lion resembling Venus or semi-nude female standing with right hand held out and left arm resting on a square pillar, Libertus ; spread eagle, Patemus.
Cupid seated on a pedestal to left, Antistii, Banuus, Doeccus ; Cupid full face kneeling on his right knee, Albucius, Laxtucis sa , Paternus.
Diminutive figure of Cupid kneeling, ? Hermes pillar with head and body of Pan holding a pedum in his right hand and a syrinx to his lips with his left, Cinnamus, Rentius, Secundinus ; little warrior armed with a shield as in filling motive.
Two fragments of the same bowl with types twice repeated. Centauress walking to right variant , ; gladiator full face fighting, Balbinus.
Butrio, Cinnamus, Lastuca, Libertus ; lion walking to right, Cinnamus ; wild boar running to left, Beardless mask side face to right, resembling type Hermes pillar of Pan, see No.
Nondescript animal running to left variant , Libertus, Paternus. Eagle devouring a hare, Pigeon taking flight turned to right variant , ? Free Figures, Series A.
Cupid walking to left, ; bear running to left variant , ; wild boar running to left variant , ; stag bounding to right, resembling ; buck bounding to right, ; quadruped galloping to right, ; horse galloping to right looking back, ; diminutive horse galloping to left looking back, ; dog running to right variant , BVTRIO in raised letters stamped outside among ornaments.
Panels with Medallions and Semi-Medallions. These may belong to the Second or Third Period, hut are certainly of the early second century.
Female dancer nude holding with both hands a scarf which [floats in a semi-circle above her, Advocisus, Sa[ ]. Hercules club only , Libertus ; man nude seated with his right foot on a base and his right hand supporting his chin variant , lullinus.
Caryatid consisting of figure of Hermes variant , Wild boar walking to right, ; double spirals. Sea horse to left, 33 Mammilius, Paternus ; Pan walking to right new type ; man nude standing full face.
Plate 2 and List II. Triton with double fish-tail brandishing an oar, 16 lustus, Libertus, Paternus. Vulcan seated holding the tongs in one hand and a spear in the other, 40 Banuus, Carantinus, Laxtucissa, Libertus, Paternus.
Apollo holding a spear in his right hand and a parazonium and piece of drapery in his left, 88 Libertus. Cupid standing full-face holding two torches, Albucius, Banuus, Lastuca, Libertus, Paternus, Ta[ ] ; dolphin to right variant , Cupid full face kneeling on his right knee, ; Cupid turned to right, kneeling on his right knee and holding an oinochoe in his right hand, DOVIICCVS in raised letters moulded outside across ornaments vertically.
Apollo nnde seated on a rock variant , 37? Man semi-nude to right crouching to spring in the attitude of Discobolus, Victory standing full face, holding a palm and wreath, Cinnamus.
Fore parts of two animals conjoined: Bust of bearded and nude male personage of coarse type new. Bird to left, looking back variant , Dolphin to left variant , ?
Perseus holding the head of Medusa, Bacchus nude standing full face, ; Pan walking to right, the punch being imperfect a difierent head has been substituted.
Man bearded enveloped in a mantle which leaves his shoulders bare, Cinnamus, lustus, Libertus. The same as No. Large scroll with lobes sub-divided horizontally framing horseman fighting.
The horse bears the ephippium and gallops to right looking back, Albucius, Banuus, Epillus, Illixo, lullicns, Lastuca, Paternus, Sabinus.
Large scroll similarly divided framing leaves, and horseman of the same type, ; bear running to left variant , 8x8. Dove to right variant , loii? Large scroll framing leaves with long stalks and birds in the early style of La Grau.
Dove to left variant , loii? Dove to left variant , ? Bird to right variant , ? Large scroll framing leaves of large dimensions.
Free Figures, Series B. Horseman fighting, the horse is rearing and looking back new type ; stag. Venus twisting with both hands the locks of her hair, ?
Man nude walking to right. Gladiator bestiarius to right charging with a long spear variant , Lioness leaping to left, Advocisus, Mapillus ; panther to right preparing to spring, ; bear running to left, ; stag or buck running to left, dog with collar running to left, Cinna- mus, Paternus.
Lioness leaping to left variant , Paternus. Bear running to left variant , luliccus, Lastuca, Paternus. The following numerical arrangement of the figured types enables them to be readily referred to, and the proportion for each place and period to be seen at a glance: Second or Third Period: The number is sufficient to strongly support the view that the Lancaster fortification was in existence at the date mentioned a.
A moulded plate of white or light biscuit paste, such as was manufactured early in the first century at St. Dawson, of AldclifFe Hall, is additional evidence of an early date.
The Olympian deities became popular on figured ornamentation about the time of Titus, a. Figure subjects begin to predominate about a.
The blocks forming figure 3 have been lent by the Manchester Branch of the Classical Association. It stands in a well-wooded park of irregular shape, nearly three and a half miles in circumference, but, except for the top of the tower above the trees, is not anywhere visible from the road or surrounding country.
The park is bounded on the south side by the Leeds and Liverpool Canal, on the west by the road from Ormskirk to Southport the ancient " Fleet Street" , on the east by the road from Bescar to Burscough and Ormskirk, and on the north by the road from Scarisbrick village to Bescar.
Scarisbrick village lies to the north-west of the park, and here stands the well-known Morris Dancers Inn. Scaris- brick Bridge, over the canal, marks the south-west corner of the park and St.
A stream, here called the Eas Brook, runs through the park from south to north, expanding in front of the hall into a triangular-shaped lake seven acres in extent.
This stream, joined by several others, makes its way northward to Crossens under the name of the Sandy Brook, and lower down, the New Pool.
Scarisbrick Hall is a modern mansion erected less than a century ago. It takes the place, however, of a much older house which stood on the same site, and, indeed, may be said in a measure to incorporate parts of the older building with it.
There is a tradition that the original Scarisbrick Hall dated from the early part of the eleventh century. However that may be, the Scaris- brick family seem to have been living at Scarisbrick from the end of the twelfth or the beginning of the thirteenth century, and presumably they had a house to live in.
The name Scarisbrick does not occur in Domesday Book, the township being then involved in Harleton and half of Martin. In the reign of Richard I.
This ancient moat is marked in Gothic type on the ordnance map, and thus obtains official recognition as an object of antiquarian interest.
Without a proper inspection of it, however, it would be unwise to venture any conjecture as to the original Scarisbrick Hall having been on this site.
Mention of old Scarisbrick Hall is made in the will of Thomas Scarisbrick dated 4th October, , in which the testator directs that "the goods, chattels, and utensils named in the bill or schedule annexed after his decease shall remain in his manor-place of Scharesbrecke to the use of his son and heir, and so continue there as heirlooms to his heirs, lords of Scharesbreck.
Also that his feofees shall suffer his executors to take yearly of the issues and profits of his manors, etc.
Scarisbrick Hall in the Middle Ages was the chief of many residences lying on the banks of Martin Mere. The mere, called in an early fourteenth century deed preserved at the Hall the "great lake," lay to the north-east of Scarisbrick, and was, according to Leland, four miles long by two broad.
In a map dated Scarisbrick Hall is shown about half to three quarters of a mile from the southern shore of the lake. The mere, indeed, seems to have been the cause of many settlements in early times in its vicinity, though in later days the presence of its almost stagnant waters was recognised as anything but an advantage to those living near its shores.
Commenting on a great mortality in the Scarisbrick family in , the late Father Bulbeck wrote: Bulpit, "suffered from ailments owing to the damp situation, but they enjoyed fowling and fishing and also social intercourse.
They moved about a great deal, as the numerous signatures to charters and deeds signify. The mere being connected with the river Douglas, skiffs could journey to Parbold, Tarleton, Eccleston, Croston, Hoole, and even Longton, and we find the names of the lords of these manors appended to the Scarisbrick charters.
The draining of the mere was commenced in by Mr. Thomas Fleetwood, of Bank Hall. These Scarisbrick charters, which were done into English by the late Rev.
While throwing much light on the life of the time, and more especially of the Scarisbrick family and its connections, they tell us nothing about the house where the Scarisbricks lived.
It is not even so much as mentioned, though we may presume that some if not all of the forty-three deeds, which are stated to be given at Scarisbrick, were signed in the hall or manor place there.
The fact, however, is not stated. The ordnance map designates the house as "Scarisbrick Hall on site of Scariebrich t all," but whether or not Edward Scarisbrick, the grandson of Thomas, whose will has been cited, built on the site of the older "Manor-place" or selected a new one must be left an open question.
The house built by Edward Scarisbrick, however, un- doubtedly stood on the present site, and seems to have been in existence until the beginning of the nineteenth century.
What this house was like, however, I have been unable to ascertain. Bulpit states that about a delph was discovered and worked at Scarisbrick, and from that conjectures that a manor bouse of stone was begun at that time on the present site.
At the same period, he says, the stream was dammed and a lake formed, so that power might be obtained for a water mill Southport Visiter.
But the statement is purely conjectural. It reads as follows: Admirable taste has been displayed in the restoration of the several parts of this ancient mansion, particularly in the old dining-hall, in which a large armorial tablet bearing the initials e.
One wing, containing a large dining-hall, is modern. This noble apartment, which is after i. Ibe design of Foster, is in the Tudor style, and has an ardhed X ceiling divided by moulded ribs springing from elaborately ornamented corbels, the spaces between the arches being filled with panels of rich tracery.
The hall possesses a collection of family portraits, amongst them one of Edward Scarisbrick, Esq. I have been told that a pictorial representation was in existence some forty years ago, and that a photographic copy was made for Lady Scarisbrick.
Recent inquiry at the Hall, however, failed to discover either the picture or the photograph. At the same time a new wing con- taining a dining-room was built on the west side.
I am strengthened in this view by the fact that in , when a new doorway was made from the staircase lobby to the billiard-room i.
At any rate, the Hall underwent a drastic change at the beginning of the last century and was a stone-faced building when the late Charles Scarisbrick succeeded to the estates on the death of his brother Thomas in He was already in possession of the Eccleston and Wrightington estates, and in he purchased the Bold moiety of North Meols.
He was reputed to be the wealthiest commoner in Lancashire. He determined to rebuild Scarisbrick Hall on a lavish scale, and in the work was com- menced.
He chose as his architect Augustus Welby Pugin, then a young man not yet twenty-five years of of age. Where and how Mr. Scarisbrick came into contact with Pugin is not recorded.
But, whatever his reasons for doing so, Charles Scaris- brick entrusted the work of rebuilding Scarisbrick Hall to Augustus Welby Pugin, and gave him an almost free hand; the result was one of the finest buildings of the Gothic revival in all England.
The only restriction put upon Pugin was that he had to retain the founda- tions of the old house. His biographer, Benjamin Ferrey, says: Here Pugin had money at his command, but, unfortunately as in almost every one of his later buildings , he was hampered in his ideas by the determi- nation of Mr.
Scarisbrick to build upon the foundations of the old house. Notwithstanding this, the architecture is of the highest merit, ahd the great hall is quite unsur- passed by any modern building of the kind.
It is very much in the style of the present Houses of Parliament, and the clock tower bears undeniable resemblance to the present graceful structure at Westminster.
The plans fill six large folios, one of which contains exquisitely finished perspective sketches of various parts of the building.
The retention of the old foundations, however, is said to have determined the plan of the new Hall, and to account for the comparative smallness for a house of this size of many of the rooms and for the absence of a really dignified main staircase.
But an examination of the original sketch plan for the "proposed alterations" not rebuilding , now preserved in Scarisbrick Hall, makes it clear that the whole of the west wing was retained.
The drawing is signed "A. Pugin," and is dated Much, if not all, of the interior decoration is his work, and the reconstruction of the great hall is, of course, entirely his; but the exterior of the west end of the house is of a rather thin style of revivalist Gothic which it would not be difficult to believe to be the work of a predecessor of Pugin, possibly of Foster himself.
The original working drawings they did not know to exist. Scarisbrick and kept by him. Pugin Powell, a grandson of Augustus Welby Pugin, writes: In my mind there is no doubt he just touched it up with a window or buttress or panel here and there; the evidence of the building is conclusive on this point.
Pugin preserved in Scarisbrick are some dated , but the work did not begin till the following year. In his diary, under date nth February, , Pugin notes, "began Mr.
But long before the completion of the work both A. Pugin and Charles Scarisbrick were dead. Pugin died in , Charles Scarisbrick in i He also built the north and south porches, the lantern, and carried out some of the decoration in the west wing.
His designs for the rebuilding of the rest of the house were afterwards much altered and elaborated by his son, though the picturesque group of stable buildings to the north-east of the hall were built according to A.
Pugin, then a youth of eighteen. Charles Scarisbrick," says a writer in The Building News 24th April, , "insisted upon retaining some portion of the original house and the whole of the foundations, the confined limits of which have necessitated the erection of a north-eastern wing one hundred and seventy feet in length.
Foster, the architect, was probably John Foster, of Liverpool, the architect of the noble Custom House in that city.
Foster, at any rate, was in practice at Liverpool, where he was architect and surveyor to the corporation at this period, retiring in He altered and added to them, noticeably the south and west gateways.
The north gateway is not his. Some building was done in this period that has since been destroyed. Scarisbrick was a great collector of pictures, and he constructed a large picture gallery, which was taken down in to make way for the present north-east wing.
The work of rebuilding was very incomplete when Lady Scarisbrick succeeded to the estates in , but she carried it on with great energy and with lavish generosity, and brought it to a completion in She put absolute trust in Mr.
Edward Pugin and gave him practically a free hand. During her reign the eastern wing, with the chapel and the lofty tower, which is a landmark in the country for miles around, was built from Mr.
Roughly speaking Scarisbrick Hall is r""n shaped in plan, the main front with the two projecting wings facing south or more correctly south-east.
In the centre of the principal front is the great hall, two storeys in height, with its roof crowned by a lantern.
On each side are projecting wings, with gables and great bay windows. The lofty "Scarisbrick tower" often incorrectly called the clock tower stands at the east end of the front, and its lower storey forms the sanctuary of the chapel.
The long northern wing divides the garden on the north side of the house from the paved courtyard on the north-east, round which the stables and offices are grouped.
The main building and offices are erected in Longridge and Scarisbrick stone, and the stables in red brick. The fittings and decorations are of a very splendid and costly description.
A detailed description of the building and its parts without the help of a plan to guide one would be tedious and uninteresting, and more may be learnt concerning the appearance of Scarisbrick Hall from the illustrations accompanying this article than it would be possible.
Externally, there is or has been a good deal of gilding, from the ridges down to the leaded lights in the windows. Edward Pugin, will be seen to be much richer and more florid than those of the western side of the house.
Inside and out, much use is made of mottoes and initials. The interior is full of colour, and has little or nothing of the sombreness which in some minds is so often associated with Gothic buildings.
Except for the old oak, which, however, is not part of the building, but was mostly collected by Mr. The effect, as may be supposed, is very rich and beautiful.
Pugin saw the Middle Ages as a period of pageantry and colour; and, as at Scarisbrick, we get colour everywhere: Everything was designed by the Pugins themselves, from the great hall and the tower down to the door knobs, furniture, and carpets.
To its admirers, the Gothic revival offers no more triumphant justification of its being than Scarisbrick Hall. People have come to see that the real Gothic spirit is something quite different from the mere copying of the work of the Middle Ages.
Pugin himself, however, saw this well enough, though one result of his energies has been to make others into mere dead copyists.
Round the arch of the south vestibule is a beautifully wrought scroll, bearing in raised characters the words, "This Hall was built by me.
The mantelpiece is built of stone from Lathom Park, and bears the inscription on a scroll, " Make the Pile for Fire Great! On the west side of the apartment is an imposing and splendid piece of oak carving, inserted in the wall, the subject being Christ crowned with thorns, and opposite this, on the east side, is a magnificent and elabo- rately carved dark oak screen.
The spandrels and roof are filled with the representations of antediluvian and fabulous monsters, in gold and appropriate colours, and in the hollow of the rich illuminated cornice round the apartment are the following Scripture verses: Leading from the carved oak room is a splendid saloon called the Tudor Hall, and here not only the wainscoting, but the ceiling, is of richly carved oak, the upper panels of the wainscoting being filled with portraits, including those of Henry VIII.
The canopies over these portraits are most exquisite, the carving being picked out in gold, red, and blue. The drawing-room is a spacious and splendid apartment,!
The great hall is only thirty-two feet by twenty-five feet. The two great oriel windows have, however, an addi- tional projection of nine feet, and in its upper part, where the gallery over the entrance corridor is thrown open to the hall, the apartment may be said to be about forty-three feet in length.
Its size is about thirty-six feet by twenty feet, exclusive of the bay window. The carved oak room is only about twenty feet by sixteen feet, and the Tudor hall twenty-two feet by twenty feet.
The mantelpiece is a magnificent specimen of stone carving, the subjects in two panels being two views of the hall, underneath which is a scroll bearing the name "Charles Scarisbrick," the whole being executed in bold relief.
These painted panels in the drawing-room mantel- piece represent Scarisbrick Hall as it was intended to be rebuilt from the first designs of A.
Two carved oak panels on the staircase also represent, as first designed, the hall and the stable buildings.
A comparison of these panels with the actual building will show at once how much the original design was afterwards modified by Mr.
Edward Pugin and Lady Scarisbrick. The later work is richer and more elaborate, and the tower is much loftier and better proportioned.
The tower was originally intended to be a clock tower and a large dial set the scale to the design. The original drawings for the clock tower are preserved at Scarisbrick, and they show a design which certainly recalls in many ways the clock tower at Westminster.
The resemblance of the style of Scaris- brick Hall to that of the Houses of Parliament has, indeed, often been commented upon, and an inspection of the designs at Scarisbrick, which were not carried out, rather emphasises this resemblance than otherwise.
Pugin was, of course, working on the two buildings at the same time. From the description just quoted it will be seen that the interior decorations at Scarisbrick are of a rather "splendid" description, and that the use of texts and mottoes is very frequent.
Pugin at the time he restored the great hall. Round the inside of the lantern is inscribed in red and gold capitals, "For He that is mighty hath done great things for me and holy is His name.
Lady Scarisbrick has left her initials, A. Ann Scaris- brick , along with the single letters s Scarisbrick and p Pugin , appear to pursue you all over the building, and form the motif of elegant diaper patterns on the walls of the principal apartments.
On the outside of the eastern wing is carved the legend, "Ann Lady of Scarisbrick built this wing A. The oak carvings which form so noticeable a feature of the interior of Scarisbrick Hall, especially in the great hall, are chiefly ancient Belgian work of the fifteenth century, collected by the late Charles Scarisbrick.
They are said to form, however, only a remnant of the original collection left by Mr. Some of the objects of virtu, however, were brought back, including the three bronze groups in front of the hall.
The gardens are not very extensive, and lie on the south, west, and north sides of the house. The garden is entered from the park across a bridge, and through a handsome pair of wrought-iron gates of the Renaissance period, recently brought from France by the Marquis de Cast6ja.
The original Gothic gates, designed by Pugin and made by Messrs. Hardman, of Birmingham, are now placed at the Bescar entrance to the park.
There is a great deal of Messrs. Grace, the decorative artist, was also associated with Pugin in the work at Scarisbrick as well as at Westminster.
The motto quoted at the head of this paper, and made use of by Charles Scarisbrick to decorate his house, must not be taken too literally as inferring that the new Scarisbrick Hall is to-day "as it was in the days of old.
Scarisbrick ever had such an intention I do not believe. The text adapted from Amos, however, may be held to put on record the pious wish of the new proprietor to restore in a worthy manner the ancestral home of his family.
As a piece of domestic architecture Scarisbrick Hall suffers a good deal from the restrictions put upon its architect. Its plan would probably have been more convenient had a clean sweep been made of the old building.
At the same time it is well to remember that A. Pugin was rather a great decorative artist than a great architect. His strength as an artist lay in the design of ornamental detail.
The facility with which he invented patterns for mural diaper and every kind of surface decoration was extraordinary. The general truth of such criticism is, perhaps, nowhere better seen than at Scarisbrick Hall, although much of the work is of a much later date than Augustus Welby Pugin.
A domestic chapel existed at Scarisbrick Hall for many generations. In and licences were obtained from the Bishop of Lichfield that service might be performed in the hall chapel.
In the will of Thomas Scarisbrick cited above the list of heirlooms in the chapel includes "two vestments, two chasubles, two albs, a chalice, a corporal, a supra altar, altar cloths, two mass books, twelve images closed in box cases, and two images not closed.
Edward Scarisbrick, the builder of the hall, was reported in as "conformable, he, but his wife a recusant," and in the year following it is said of him that he "seldom communycateth, his children trained up in popery, and his daughters never come to History of the Gothic Revival, by Chas.
Eastlake, , chapter ix. One of the four sons of a later Edward Scarisbrick, Henry, became a Jesuit, and was stationed at Scarisbrick as officiating priest at the chapel at the hall from to For many years a priest resided on the estate of the Scarisbricks and ministered to the spiritual wants of the Catholic tenantry.
For several years the chapel was served by the Jesuit fathers. Service was celebrated at the hall, but in the tithebarn at Bescar was bought and converted into a place of worship.
In the Benedictines were invited to serve the mission, which has since been carried on by them. The windows are circular-headed and the square doors are simply ordinary house doors.
An account of the Scarisbrick family was written in by Mr. A great deal of information regarding this family is there brought together, but the following brief catalogue of the " Lords of Scarisbrick" is based chiefly on Mr.
From Gilbert de Scarisbrick, temp. The will of Gilbert Scarisbrick directs that his body be buried "in the old chapel in the north side of the church of Burscough near my mother and my wife.
Before the Dissolution, however, as the will of Thomas Scarisbrick shows, they were being buried in Ormskirk Church. The mediaeval brass now on the south wall of the Scarisbrick Chapel is supposed to represent Sir Henry Scarisbrick 7 , who fought at Agincourt, but the brass itself is probably of a much later date.
Probable suc- cessor of Gilbert. He granted two acres of land to Burscough Priory. He held the manor about ten years. Succeeded pro- bably as a child.
In he entailed his estates on his heirs male, with remainder to his brother Gilbert. Probably fought at Agincourt, and was knighted on the field.
Returned with Henry V. In he was at the siege of Sens, and probably died in France the same year. Died between Sep- tember, , and May, Died 24th April, , seized of the manor of Scaresbreke, "with mills, messuages, lands, woodlands, rents, etc.
The king claimed his wardship as certain lands were stated to be held directly of the Crown. On inquiry this was found to be a mistake.
Scarisbreck and Hurlston were pronounced to be held of the Earl of Derby, as successor of the Lathom family see p.
Died 25th July, Succeeded in at the age of six. He was a ward of the Earl of Derby, whose natural daughter, Elizabeth, he married.
His will, dated 4th October, , is printed at length in Lancashire and Cheshire Wills, vol. Succeeded his father in He was living in , but dead before Succeeded early in the reign of Queen Elizabeth.
He rebuilt the Hall. He was "conformable in religion, though his wife a recusant. He died 27th April, , leaving as his heir Henry Scarisbrick, son of Thomas Scarisbrick of Barwick, a descendant of a younger son from one of his ancestors.
By this marriage, which took place on 28th July, , the two lines of the family were united. Henry Scarisbrick died in October, His son and heir was born in the following March.
His name is in the guild roll of Preston in as a "foreign burgess. He died in in London, and was buried at St. He married Frances Blundell, of Ince-Blundell, who survived him nearly forty-eight years.
He died in , and she in January, At the age of eighteen he became a Jesuit and resigned the estates to his brother Robert Came of age in i6go.
He was a Jacobite in politics and was probably concerned in the rising of He fled to escape arrest after the failure of the Pretender and kept in concealment for two years.
He then surrendered, and was committed to Newgate 7 , where he remained eight months. He was acquitted at the Lancaster assizes and his estates restored.
He died in March, He was the third son of Robert Scarisbrick The eldest son pre- deceased his father and the second son became a Jesuit.
Robert succeeded his father in , but died unmarried the same year, and was succeeded in turn by three of his brothers. He was the fourth son of Robert Scarisbrick He died in July, , leaving only a daughter.
Died between and Robert Scaris- brick 19 had nine sons, three of whom — Edward, Francis, and Henry — became Jesuits and renounced their rights to the estates.
The Jesuit order having been suppressed in , Edward and Francis seem to have occupied the hall, and the latter before his death in settled the estates on his nephew, Thomas Eccleston.
Francis Scarisbrick was rector of St. He died in , aged eighty-six. Basil Thomas Scarisbrick took the name of Eccleston on succeeding to the Eccleston estates in His son Thomas Eccles- ton born succeeded his father as lord of Eccleston in He had been for eleven years previous to this master of Scarisbrick by usucaption, though not by legal settlement, from his uncle Francis Scarisbrick.
From the time he took up his residence at Scarisbrick Hall he effected great improvements on the estate, and had com- pleted the draining of Martin Mere in , for which he obtained the gold medal of the Society of Arts.
He married Eleanor, daughter of Thomas Clifton. He resumed the name of Scarisbrick sometime after He died ist November, Born Eccleston, he assumed the name and arms of Scarisbrick, by royal licence, i8th May, The Wrightington estate went to his brother Charles, to whom he sold the Eccleston estate also.
He died 17th July, Like his brother Thomas he had been born Eccleston 24th June, On succeeding to the Wrightington estate he took the name of Dicconson, but, on coming into the Scarisbrick estate in , he dropped the name of Dicconson for that of Scarisbrick.
Between and i his wealth increased enormously by the value of land in Southport. He it was who commenced the re- building of Scarisbrick Hall in He was high sheriff of the county in He was a man of strange and eccentric habits and, although he lived at Scarisbrick with a lady who bore his name, he was never married.
By her he had three children, on whom he settled in trust the North Meols portion of his estate. Nathaniel Hawthorne, who lived in Southport in , was attracted by the stories he heard of the strange per- sonality of Charles Scarisbrick.
He might be an interesting person to know; but, after all, his character turns out to be one of the commonplaces of novels and romance.
He was buried at Bescar Chapel, the vault at Ormskirk having been made up. His eccentricity was shown in the directions he left for his funeral.
When he built the presbytery at Bescar "he ordered a gap to be left in the garden wall, which was otherwise completed. He would never disclose the reason of this singular order, but after his death it was discovered that he had directed his body to be carried to the grave in a straight line from the house.
The route lay through some fields, a garden, and across three or four ditches. A day or two before hedges were cut down, planks were laid across ditches, and a complete thoroughfare made between Scarisbrick Hall and the burial ground.
The funeral party on leaving the hall entered a meadow, then crossed a wheatfield, passed over a potato field, and afterwards went through a garden into the chapel yard.
Lady Hunloke assumed the surname and arms of Scarisbrick by royal licence, 17th October, i, and thenceforward she was known as Lady Scarisbrick.
She had a triumphant entry to her estate on 5th June, She completed the building of the hall, and the east wing and the tower are her work.
Hunloke, Bart, died , and Charlotte died — predeceased her. Besides completing the hall Lady Scarisbrick restored the family burial place in Ormskirk Church She is said to have been designated by George IV.
After his death his widow continued to reside in France till , and during this period Miss Hunloke contracted a marriage with the Marquis de Casteja, a distinguished member of the French aristocracy.
The Marquis de Casteja was authorised, on his wife succeeding to the Scarisbrick estate, by royal licence dated 31st January, , to take the name of Scarisbrick after that of De Biaudos, and to bear the arms of Scarisbrick quarterly.
The Marchioness de Casteja died 13th November, , and was buried first at Wingerworth and afterwards in a specially prepared vault in the new church erected to her memory at Bescar.
Church at Bescar bears the following inscription: He was born 22nd February, , and belonged to an ancient family which came into France with Henry of Navarre.
He was present on the coronation of Charles X. He formed part of the little army which protected King Charles in his flight in For his services at that time he was made a Chevalier of the Legion of Honour.
When the war with Germany broke but in the marquis was already sixty-five years of age, but he accepted the task of equipping two hundred and fifty battalions of national guards created to co- operate with the regular army in the defence of Paris.
He was in Paris, with his wife, all through the siege, and his house in the Boulevard Haussmann was turned into a hospital.
For his services at this time he received the only cross of Commander of the Legion of Honour given to an officer of the national guard.
He escaped from Paris soon after the Commune was proclaimed and came to England, but after the death of his wife he resided for the greater part of his life in France, only paying occasional visits to Scarisbrick.
He died at the advanced age of ninety-four in AN altar dug up at Ribchester in is now preserved at St. On the right side is a figure of Apollo with his lyre.
Two female figures, holding some object now too worn to be clearly made out, are carved on the back of the altar.
The inscription is thus given by Mr, Thompson Watkin: Antoninus of the Sixth Legion, the Victorious. The Romans were not exclusive in their religious ideas, and readily admitted foreign deities to their Pantheon.
There are several instances of Celtic divinities whose names have been conjoined to those of the gods of the invading conquerors, as in the case of Mars Cocidius.
There are other inscriptions relating to the Celtic god Maponus. In the Ravenna list of Roman towns in Britain the name of Maponi occurs. Watkin remarks, should probably be the Fanum Maponi.
But where this temple of Mabon stood is not known. There is Rhiwabon, about which Professor John Rhys remarks: Llanfabon is dedicated to him, and also perhaps Rhiwfabon in Maelor, just named.
He is said to have been a brother of St. Except God there is no searcher of hearts. Thomas Stephens, who regards the warrior and the saint as identical, suggests that Teilo was the son of Enlleu by Tegfed, and Mabon the son by a second wife, Modron, the daughter of Avallach.
A person named Mabon is named as a lay witness to a deed of gift to Dubricius, bishop of Llandaff, who died in He also thinks that Mabon ab Mellt is the same person as the saint.
The chief legendary data about Mabon is to be found in the Mabittogion, but there are a few other allusions that demand notice.
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